World Mortality Dataset: international data on all-cause mortality.

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World Mortality Dataset

This repository contains country-level data on all-cause mortality in 2015–2021 collected from various sources, see below. We are currently providing data for 81 countries. We welcome any contributions.

World Mortality coverage

Preprint: Karlinsky & Kobak 2021, The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic,

For the excess mortality analysis using this data see


  • Our aim is to provide data from 2015 onward. In some cases the coverage starts later, but we require at least full 2019 data.
  • Countries are only included if the data exist until at least June 2020.
  • We only collect weekly, monthly, or quarterly data.
  • The latest data points (weeks/months/quarters) for each country are preliminary and subject to (sometimes large) revisions.
  • We only provide all-cause mortality numbers, without splitting by age or gender.
  • We only provide country-level data, without splitting it by regions or individual cities.
  • The Short Term Mortality Fluctuations (STMF) dataset from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) is integrated into this dataset. See the STMF dataset for mortality by age and gender; here we only provide the total numbers.
  • The data for the European countries that are not in STMF are sourced from the EuroStat.
  • Some countries publish obviously incomplete weekly data for most recent weeks, which shows as large "dips" in the end of the time series. We omit these data points for the following countries: Denmark, Finland, South Korea, United States. Note that some other countries may also report partially incomplete data.
  • Weekly data mostly follow ISO8601 standard, when weeks are calendar weeks, Monday to Sunday, and the weeks on the year boundaries are assigned to the year in which they have more days (four or more). Most years have 52 weeks but some years, such as 2015 and 2020, have 53 weeks. Some countries follow other conventions, see e.g. STMF description.

World Mortality across time


Human Mortality Database, Short-Term Mortality Flucations

We collect the weekly STMF data for the following countries: Australia*, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland , Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom (England & Wales + Northern Ireland + Scotland), United States.

We do not use Taiwan data from STMF because the monthly data (see below) is more frequently updated.

United States data from 2017 onwards are replaced with CDC 'predictions' that account for underreporting in recent weeks (see below).

For some European countries, STMF sometimes has more up-to-date (and backward revised) data than Eurostat, as it culls data from countries' NSOs. For each data point that exists in both datasets, we take the maximum between them as the final data.

* Australia's data (all years) is "Doctor Certified Deaths" rather than "All Registered Deaths". These constitute about 85%-90% of all deaths in Australia.


We collect the weekly data from Eurostat for the following countries: Albania, Cyprus, Georgia, Liechtenstein, Malta, Montenegro, Romania.

Armenia (monthly)

Statistical Committee of the Republic of Armenia:


Azerbaijan (monthly)

2015 to 2017:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1
2019 to 2020:

Belarus (monthly)

2015 to 2020: UNData -,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

Bolivia (monthly)

New York Times:

NYT obtained these data directly from the Bolivian officials. Note that the data for April 2020 are missing. To quote NYT, "Bolivia’s Civil Registry recorded almost no deaths in April due to the closure of government offices during a lockdown. Officials said [at] least some of the deaths that occurred in April could have been registered in later months." In their analysis, NYT implicitly assumes that the excess mortality in April was zero.

Bosnia (monthly)

Agency for Statistics of Bosnia & Herzegovina Natural Population Change Quarterly:

Brazil (monthly)

2015 to 2017: UNData -,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1
2019 to 2020: Brazilian Population Registry:

Note: The Brazilian Population Registry has data for monthly mortality in 2018, but it is significantly lower than UNData counts for previous years. This is possibly due to under-reporting in the Registry in early years. We chose not to include 2018 Brazilian currently.

Note: Brazilian Population Registry seems to be downward biased compared to 2015-2019 data from Brazil's Ministry of Health ( by about 7 to 10%. For now we chose to stay with the Population Registry Data in order to best insure consistency with 2020-2021 data.

Canada (weekly)

StatCan -

Weekly mortality counts were transformed to ISO-8601 weeks by using reference date.

Colombia (weekly)
Direct link to the latest table in Excel (January 2021): Here we sum values in three categories: Natural, Violenta (Violent), and En estudio (unclassified deaths).

Costa Rica (monthly)

2015 to 2020: UNData -,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1
2020: Costa Rica National Institute Of Statistics And Censuses (INEC) - Direct link to excel:

The INEC publication provides mortality data for the first half (January-June) of 2020, While UNDATA provides monthly data for January-April. Our estimate for May and June mortality is thus the mean of the difference between the January-June total and the January-June mortality.

Ecuador (weekly)

Direct link to the latest table in XLS:

Ecuador provides daily death counts. We summed them up to form weekly death counts.

Egypt (monthly)

2015 to 2019:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1
2020: Monthly Bulletin of the Egyptian NSO (CAPMAS):

Hong Kong (monthly)

Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department:
2015 to 2018:
2019 to 2020: Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics,

Iran (quarterly)

Iran National Organization for Civil Registration:
The data are provided in Solar Hirji seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter). Winter starts on Dec 22, so we count it as the next calendar year (e.g. Winter 1393 as the first entry for 2015).

Ireland (weekly)

2015 to 2019: New York Times:
Based on a study by Ireland's Health Information and Quality (HIQA) Authority
2020: Based on the methodology of the HIQA study, we crawled RIP.IE with Gilad Gabiel's script to provide weekly mortality counts for 2020 onward.

Note: According to HIQA study, usage is downward-biased in earlier years. To account for this, we have decided to only include data from 2018 onward. Additionally, comparing the estimates from our crawling and HIQA data for the same weeks, our estimates are higher at about 5%, since we do not post-process the data. In order to account for this, our estimates are multiplied by 0.95.

Israel (weekly)

Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics:

Japan (monthly)

Japanese Government Statistics Portal:

Kazakhstan (monthly)

Kazakhstan Bureau of National Statistics 2015 to 2018: Monthly Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan:

2019 to 2020:

Direct link to Excel file:

Thanks to Noah Katz for culling Kazakhstan's data 2015 to 2018 for World Mortality.

Kosovo (monthly)

Kosovo Agency of Statistics Quarterly Bulletin:

Kyrgyzstan (monthly)

2015 - 2018: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1
2019 onwards: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic - The main results of natural population January - December 2020:

Macao (monthly)

2015 - 2019: UNData:;countryCode:446&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: Macao Special Administrative Region Statistics and Census Service Monthly Bulletin:

Malaysia (quarterly)

Department of Statistics Malaysia:


2017 onward:

Mauritius (monthly)

2015 to 2019: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: Email correspondence with Statistics Mauritius.

Mexico (weekly)

National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) Mexico: 2015 - 2019:

Mexican Ministry of Health Excess deaths database: 2020 onward:

We wish to thank Mario Romero Zavala & Laurianne Despeghel for helping us obtain this information.

Moldova (monthly)

2015 to 2020: UNData:;countryCode:498&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: UNData MBS (as crude death rates):

2020 Data was taken from UNDATA except for December, where crude death rates from MBS were transformed to mortality count by using the UNDATA Mid-Year Population estimate for Moldova 2020 which is 2,640,000.

Mongolia (monthly)

2015: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2016 to 2020: Mongolian Statistical Information Service:

North Macedonia (monthly)

2015 to 2019: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: North Macedonia State Statistical Office Monthly Bulletin:

Oman (monthly)

Oman National Center for Statistics and Information 2015 to 2018: Deaths and Births Statistical Bulletin:

2019 to 2020: Monthly Bulletin:

Note: 2019 monthly death counts was smaller at 1020 deaths than total yearly mortality count (Shown in the January 2021 Monthly Bulletin). In order to account for this, all 2019 monthly data was increased by the mean monthly difference of 85. Final official monthly data for 2019 should be available by November 2021.

Peru (weekly)

Peruvian Ministry of Health - National Deaths Registration System (SINADEF):

Peru provides daily death counts. We summed them up to form weekly death counts.

Philippines (monthly)

Philippines Statistics Authority:

Qatar (monthly)

2015 to 2019: UNData:;countryCode:634&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: Qatar Planning and Statistics Authority Monthly Statistics:

Russia (monthly) (data available from 2006)
The latest month is published on first and it takes several days for the data to appear on The exact URL is always different. For November 2020, the URL is

San Marino (monthly)

San Marino Office of Economc Planning, Data Processing and Statistics - Bulletin of Statistics:

Serbia (monthly)

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia:

Singapore (monthly)

Department of Statistics Singapore:

South Africa (weekly)

South Africa Medical Research Council (SAMRC):

South African data is provided in an Epidemiological Week format, which run from Sunday to Saturday.

SAMRC does not publish weekly data for years before 2020. Instead, the 2018--2019 data were used by SAMRC to forecast expected weekly mortality using the Excel Holt-Winters time series forecasting method in Excel function. We denote this forecast as year = 0 in the data.

For additional details, refer to SAMRC (2021): METHODOLOGICAL NOTE: PREDICTED NUMBERS OF DEATHS BY EPI-WEEK FOR SOUTH AFRICA IN 2020 AND 2021, available at:

Sweden (weekly)

Statistics Sweden - Preliminary Statistics on Deaths (2015 onward, daily):

Note: Sweden has a significant number of deaths which occurred in an "unknown" date (and thus week) in all years. However, 95% these have a known month of death. In order to account for this, we have adjusted the daily number of deaths in Sweden by the difference between monthly deaths from daily deaths and total monthly deaths, and the residual with unknown month, distributed throughout the year. For example, the sum of daily deaths in April 2020 is 10376. The total monthly deaths in April 2020 is 10555, which yields a daily mean difference of 5.97 added to each day in April 2020. The 254 additional deaths in 2020 with unknown month, were distributed uniformly across months and then daily within each month. Thus, each day in April 2020 is increased by 6.67 deaths.

Weekly deaths in Sweden have been rounded to one significant digit to emphasize they were adjusted.

Taiwan (monthly)

Taiwan Ministry of the Interior Monthly Bulletin of Interior Statistics:

Taiwan also has weekly data from STMF, but it is less updated, so we opted to keep the monthly data for now.

Tajikistan (quarterly)

Tajikistan Agency on Statistics: 2015 to 2019: Demographic Yearbook of the Republic of Tajikistan 2021 (paper copy):

Monthly counts were aggregated to quarterly counts.

2020 Q1 to Q3: UNData MBS (as crude death rates): Crude death rates were transformed to mortality counts by using the UNDATA Mid-Year Population estimate for Tajikistan 2020 which is 9,392,000.

2020Q4 was derived as the difference between total yearly deaths in 2020 (41743) and sum of 2020Q1-2020Q3.

We wish to thank the reporters from Eurasianet for providing us this information.

Tunisia (monthly)

Tunisia National Institute of statistics Monthly Bulletin:

Uruguay (weekly)

Uruguay Ministry of Public Health - Surveillance of all-cause mortality.
The report presents weekly deaths in 2020 and a forecast of expected deaths based on the median of weekly deaths in 2015-2019 up to week 30. The data from the report's figure 3 was digitized using WebPlotDigitizer.

We denote this forecast as year = 0 in the data.

Thailand (monthly)

Official Statistics Registration Systems:

Ukraine (monthly)

2015 to 2018:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: State Statistics Office of Ukraine:
Access by: Statistical Information -> Population and migration -> Number of live births, deaths, by region

2019 data can be found following links from:

Uzbekistan (monthly)

2015 to 2018: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2019 to 2020: Uzbekistan State Committee on Statistics - Demographic situation January - December (Direct link to PDF):

United States (weekly)

2015--2016: STMF, see above.
From 2017: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
We use the 'predicted' (weighted) time series that accounts for underreporting in recent weeks. See for more information.
We remove the last weeks (usually two) that are marked at as being <90% complete.

Currently unused sources

Below are listed some sources that are currently not used for this dataset.

Georgia (monthly)

The monthly numbers for Georgia are not used because we prefer the weekly numbers from EuroStat.

2015--19:დემოგრაფიული-ვითარება-საქართველოში-2019.pdf, page 67
2020: (values digitized from an official plot)

Ireland (quarterly)

Ireland Central Statistics Office:

Romania (monthly)

The monthly numbers for Romania are not used because we prefer the weekly numbers from EuroStat.

National Institute of Statistics: